Skip header navigation to main content. NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
NREL Publications

Return to Search

Return to Document List

Document Summary

Title: Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities.
Author: Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.
Pages/Volumes: 54 pp.
Publication Year: 2011
Document Type: Research Report
NTIS/GPO Number: 1007346
Subject Code Description: Energy Analysis
Abstract: This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.
Accession Number: 48986
Library Notes: NPL-1102 REV
Report Numbers: TP-6A20-48986


3.5 MB

PDF: This document is available as an Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Acrobat Reader.